Apart from untouchables another potential group that was targeted by Christian missionaries was the widows. Some scholars observed that the school's curriculum was heavily religion based, intensely denominational and shallow in content. Howbeit, if a new religion has assumed major significance in the lives of a people, then it is very necessary to assess the nature of its activities and progress in order to establish the genuineness of its predominance and to see how far it has allowed itself or otherwise, to fulfill the requirements which the people demand of their religion. Missionaries not only translated Bible, but also wrote grammar and produced dictionaries for several languages like Tamil, Bengali, etc… Medical missions Missionaries who saw the need for scientific health care began mission hospitals in India. The educational system train research workers and teachers as pure scientists without practical work on specific African problems.
The frequent recurring necessity of having to find the money for their friends, will gradually force the young men out of the groove in which they have been living. Khati, Sebotsa and Maime claim to be Chief Lekaota's former advisors. Modern medicine was made available to all people. The very low life expectancy coupled with child marriages and little scope for widow remarriages gave rise to the number of young widows leading a life of social exclusion from their families and communities. A ministry of education was created in each of the region with a minister as the head.
This was also borne out by the experiences of Moffatt in the northern Cape. Most importantly the Jesuit colleges in India have been in the forefront of the education system in India. The simple explanation is that the African moral community once destroyed has not been reconstructed; moral ideas and institutions, moral persons and group of persons, moral situations and environment have been subjected to the jangling discord of their western models. This development brought an unprecedented expansion in education across the regions. The association between Protestant missions and democracy is consistent in different continents and subsamples, and it is robust to more than 50 controls and to instrumental variable analyses. This is the missing link in the British colonial enterprise in Nigeria that the various sub-themes of this study have addressed. Any drop in the success rate would tremendously bring down the enrollment numbers.
Overall without any governmental intervention to secure the interests of depressed castes in employment education served as means to the reproduction of caste and class hierarchies. Even though the British were very cautious in bringing in the Christian missionaries and discouraged the missionary activity; the association of Christian missionaries with that of the colonial government by the natives could not be avoided. Nevertheless, the galvanizing of the diverse people of Nigeria may not have been achieved by the mere order of British royalty. In conclusion, for education to lead to socio-economic development there should be an overhaul of the existing social, economic and educational systems. They even tried to hide their true identity by projecting an impression that all the modernity was because of Christianity.
The square house and substantially-walled round hut, is superseding the old grass huts, and the use of European clothing is more generally adopted. Since the missionaries believed that European rule, rather than the existing African administration, facilitated their missionary enterprise, it was obvious that the establishment of British political authority would be looked upon as a welcome change. In the second instance, religion which is another essential character of Africa is problematic. In India Christian missionaries took up the role of giving both religious and scientific knowledge to the natives. Thus it is evident that emphasis is laid on social responsibility, job orientation, political participation and spiritual and moral values. However, education was still the monopoly of the Christian Missions. Following his footsteps, William Carey translated Bible into several languages.
They had to go through regular inspections by the government agencies with regard to compliance with the government rules and regulations. The dichotomy of this approach was not something which found separate expression in different individuals but was often incorporated within the same person. Traditionally various communities had ways of educating their young ones according to their values and norms. The ability of missionaries to make converts and hold them on their stations also seems to have been somewhat in doubt. Many of them look for employment as teachers, interpreters and constables, but in these lines only a limited number of them can be employed. Most appear to have originated from the Eastern Cape and Transkei region Lovedale Missionary Institution 1896 , where they also subsequently plied their trades Blue Books on Native Affairs 1880 , but it is not impossible that, with time, they spread further afield. A single instance of any student getting converted to Christianity in the school would make the students empty the school in mass immediately.
Generally however interaction took place on a more formal level, with missionaries encouraging local people to obey the laws and pay their hut taxes, and occasionally interceding on their behalf with officialdom. Missionaries started technical institutes like Nave Institute, Shahjahanpur, Prakash Institute, Wadi and Ingraham institute in Ghaziabad. In the process they consolidated their knowledge about the Hinduism and saw the need for the revival of the degenerating Hinduism which already had fragmented into hundreds of different versions. In 1969, the first national conference was held in Lagos, while the second took place four years later i. Its outcome brought about expansion in education at all levels. The national policy on education 1988 which was divided into eleven sections was popularly referred to as 6-3-3-4 system of education. This forced the Christian missionary schools to devote major part of their school time towards exam preparation rather than in spiritual or religious engagement.
Certainly we know that the former performed a number of ad hoc duties on behalf of the Government such as reporting on events in remote areas and fulfilling various diplomatic functions Williams 1959. The reputation of the school solely depended on the success rate of the students in the examination. None of them however formulated any kind of philosophical response to vernacular structures, choosing instead to view them as some kind of barometer against which to measure progress of a larger social and cultural nature. First the missionary builds a simple small house for himself, to which he soon adds a school and a church. Although at first this was not applied uniformly in the rural areas, in 1870 it was enacted on a broad basis as an urban and rural house tax which was intended as a straightforward revenue-generating measure Foster, Tennant and Jackson 1887.
Even women from the upper caste families were not provided the opportunity to learn. It was expected to have addressed all the observed mal-functions of the old system, and to also satisfy the development needs of the country. The new methods of irrigation and crop rising was introduced by missionaries. In the literate cultures of Asia and the Near East, missionaries also invested in colleges and medical schools. Generally he must himself superintend this work; often enough, indeed, he must execute it with his own hand, and it stands him in good stead to have been a tradesman at home. Later on other articles, such as furniture and building materials, would have become available through the same channels.
Their ultimate aim was to proselytize the native population and prove the falsehood of the native religions. To check this from happening, the failure rate was kept very high. Norwegian, Dnaish missionaries have imparted education to the socially ostracized and weaker sections of the society like the Adivasis which have paved their way forward. Yet the morality that could possibly be acquired via this new religion has been elusive of an African hold. Agricultural institutes Agriculture was the predominant occupation in India. There was nothing wrong in Africans to use traditional names which these missionaries go against. When missionaries arrived they began to start schools for common people, generally in the vernacular language.