Liberty is generally used in the case of individual and freedom refers to greater entity such as freedom of a country. So far as the private realm is concerned the individuals should be left alone. Here lies the basic difference between capitalist notion of freedom and Marxist notion of freedom. There for E H Carr considers this approach as Utopian Unreal. On the theoretical side it enters into the origin and nature of the State and on the practical side it deals with the structure, function and form of political institutions and discusses the working of governments. A large measure of social justice or diffusion of social and economic privileges is a prerequisite for liberty.
The main subject of our study seems to be the State round which the entire machinery of the Government rotates. During the last one century and half nowhere in the globe socalism has been established. Many feminists are of the opinion that inside the private world of family man exercises power or dominance over woman. Secondly, the state along with human agencies and institutions must try to remove them. The philosophers set the standards through intuition and logical deduction.
It has been undergoing changes from the ancient times till today. Such a situation will be another name of anarchy and anarchy is not freedom. Beginning from traditional study based on state, government, law and institutions to modern study focusing on process, political dynamics, political socialization, political cultures, political development and informal structures like pressure groups etc. Political Science deals with man and his institutions. When there are no physical impediments a man may undertake any work but his ability does not allow him to shoulder the burden of doing the work. The term was first used to describe a backlash against second-wave feminism, but it is now a label for a wide range of theories that take critical approaches to previous feminist discourses and includes challenges to the second wave's ideas. In this model two persons, charged with murder, are kept in two cells and they can neither see nor talk to each other.
It is also correct that without economic liberty political liberty has no real value. Apart from them, some new issues have come to dominate the scene such as feminism, environmentalism, ecology, community, issue concerning development, subalteranism etc. History is witness to the fact that concentration of power has very often led to despotism. With the collapse of the Soviet Union as a Super Power, the United States has emerged as the supreme monolithic power and can now dominate the international scene almost without any challenge. Power exists in all political processes, however democratic they may be. This is because in the Western tradition, it is at least 2300 years old and has been attended to by philosophers, theologians, kings, economists, sociologists, popes and others.
Political Science studies about the State, its origin, its nature, its functions and so on. It cannot be totally value-neutral. Thus, the tendency has been to group them into separate categories and treat them as distinct sciences. To understand the complexity of cultures across all of human history, anthropology draws knowledge from the social and biological sciences as well as the humanities and physical sciences. Attempts to structure and intellectualize it have often beenthematically and analytically confined to boundaries determined by data.
Liberty is a goal and indeed a very coveted goal but it cannot be treated in isolation. Karl Mannheim's divides sociology into two main sections-systematic and general sociology and historical sociology. In other words, the study of politics is concerned with the description and analysis of the manner in which power is obtained, exercised and controlled, and the purpose for which it is used, the manner in which decisions are made, the factors which influence the making of these decisions and the context in which these decisions are made. However, the power that Political Science deals with is, more often than not, the legitimate power. The task of knowledge, according to Marx, is not only to understand the world but also to change the material conditions of human life.
A few years ago India also started prohibiting wine in some of its parts. Systematic sociology describes one by one the main factors of living together as far as they may be found in every kind of society. But we, from our practical experience, can say that absence or restraints cannot constitute liberty in real sense. It is very difficult to find out which particular cause has helped in the happening of the particular political incident. The end of the state was the promotion of good life. There is a revival of normative element. The people of the city will judge them negatively.
Freedom is essential for all residents of a society. This type of State is the reality of imaginary world. Some would come first, some, second and others would fail. A new order will have to be found out to overcome such chaotic conditions. If attitude and outlook of individuals are changed the sphere or extent of liberty must also change. International Relations, according to him, is much wider in scope than International Politics. Thus, international relations are now conducted by such a large number of new nationstates.
The next step is to specify how the software will meet that need; specifically, what functionality will be developed. The state is useful to man but he is the master. Similar events may occur under different political conditions or vice versa similar political conditions may lead to different events. It will not be wrong to say that history serves as a guide to the present and future. But if both of them confess, they both would be given serious punishment.