Theory Y assumes that people view work as being as natural as play and rest and spend the same level of effort on it. Do you recognize the practical explanation of do you have more suggestions? Basic needs are physiological, such as food, water, and sleep; and psychological, such as affection, security, and self esteem. Also, participative decision-making may not always be feasible or successful due to the nature of the work or the willingness of the workers. Because of the rigors of experimentation and control, it is understood to be more likely to be true than a hypothesis is. As he explained in his seminal paper titled Theory Z, the motivation for transcendence literally 'transcends' his original hierarchy of needs. Theory Y organizations also give employees frequent opportunities for promotion.
Theory X suggests that people work for extrinsic reasons -- in other words, money! Theory X In Theory X, summarizes the traditional view of management in a number of characteristic assumptions in which autocratic leadership style, close supervision and the hierarchical principle are the key elements. Theory X will sooner be implemented in industrial organizations where activities revolve around a high degree of productivity. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach. One may certainly disagree with scientists regarding their theories, but it is an inaccurate interpretation of language to regard their use of the word as implying a tentative hypothesis; the scientific use of theory is quite different than the speculative use of the word. Douglas McGregor, Revisited: Managing the Human Side of the Enterprise p. This article needs additional citations for.
This is more relevant in the workplace now than ever before, especially when management style is being scrutinised, and Leadership is becoming the preferred method of empowering employees, clients, colleagues and peers. Patty Mulder is an Dutch expert on Management Skills, Time Management, Personal Effectiveness and Business Communication. Influence A good manager will realize that leadership affects employee behaviour. Tweak Your Biz is an international, business advice community and online publication. The second one is the 3D Theory which was developed by in his book Managerial Effectiveness 1970. Initially, they will focus on hobbies, committee and voluntary work, but eventually this could result in a hunt for another job.
McGregor grouped the hierarchy into a lower order Theory X needs and a higher order Theory Y needs. Further, they must be monitored, persuaded, rewarded and punished, or else they will remain idle. Which Management style have you worked under in the past? People want to avoid work and they must be continually coerced and controlled. Since this casual use does away with the distinctions upheld by the scientific community, hypothesis and theory are prone to being wrongly interpreted even when they are encountered in scientific contexts—or at least, contexts that allude to scientific study without making the critical distinction that scientists employ when weighing hypotheses and theories. On the other extreme, Theory Y is diametrically opposite to theory X which shows the modern and dynamic approach to individuals and relies on the assumptions that are practical in nature. McGregor makes the point that a command-and-control environment is not effective because it relies on lower needs for motivation, but in modern society those needs are mostly satisfied and thus are no longer motivating.
But you wouldn't use it when managing a team of , who are used to working under their own initiative, and need little direction. Theory X starts from the assumption that people are naturally lazy, want to avoid work as much as possible, do not wish to take responsibility, have no ambition and prefer to be supervised. In 1960, Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals employees : one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y. Contrasted with Theory X, Theory Y is a more dignified and enlightened management style. Basic human needs are the fundamental aspects of human nature. . Hi CintiaFiore, Thank you fior the positive comment on our resources.
The higher needs are called meta needs or growth needs. Warning Your assumptions and how you assess your people's needs and wants will likely be the biggest influencers on your management style. Theory Y searches and discovers the ways in which an employee can make significant contributions in an organization. Next, the management directs the efforts of the employees and motivate and control their actions, to make them work as per the needs of the organisation. Wes Friesen Wes Friesen manages multiple departments for an electrical utility based in the Northwest. This data is helping us better serve the market with relevant content. On the basis of above assumptions, it is concluded that the management is held responsible for organising resources, for the firm, with the aim of economic gain.
Conversely, Theory Y is based on the assumption that an average human being is motivated towards growth and development and they contribute to the achievement of organisational goals. Do you believe that they get great from their work and take pride in doing the best possible job? As a result, they think that team members need to be prompted, or punished constantly to make sure that they complete their tasks. This is really an approach toward management and leadership. Many organizations are using Theory Y techniques. It is used in the names of a number of principles accepted in the scientific community, such as the Big Bang Theory. He based his theory on healthy, creative people who used all their talents, potential, and capabilities.
The managers influenced by Theory X believe that everything must end in blaming someone. Slow promotions, group decision-making, and life-time employment may not be a good fit with companies operating in cultural, social, and economic environments where those work practices are not the norm. He likes to lead rather than to be led by others. A mix of practices which ensure a healthy blend of systems and the freedom to perform at the work place is likely to motivate the employees more. To McGregor, a steady supply of motivation seemed more likely to occur under Theory Y management. Theory Z also makes assumptions about company culture. Unsatisfied lower needs will dominate unsatisfied higher needs and must be satisfied before the person can climb up the hierarchy.