These quibbles aside, Zakerian must be commended for conducting such a morally scrupulous, intellectually courageous and theoretically rich study. Although the likely reason for the Arab Spring can be attributed to general discontent with the role of local government, it is argued in the research that whenever there is a dramatic uprising of this nature opportunity is seen in the aftermath, when it comes to establishing a new improved approach to all aspects of government, from offering political stability, to ensuring that the regions provide greater security to the individuals within those regions. While Saudi Arabia welcomes technology allowing it to accommodate U. In Human Rights Quarterly, 31, pp. After 1970-71, the influx of Palestinians from Jordan tipped the demographic balance in favor of the Moslems, but without correspondingly increasing their political power. The Muslim Brotherhood has in fact influenced Islamist movements around the world with its mix of political activism and charity work and is an example of how the use of human rights language can galvanize civil society.
Issues such as this reflect the difficulty in addressing the reality of the situation in the Middle East with human rights and the application of international human rights norms to Muslim States and it is to the issue of elections and democracy promotion that we shall turn to next. Today, child arrests, detention and imprisonment continue to be a protection risk for children in Egypt. The government of Iraq declared the referendum illegal and unconstitutional. One of the most notable issues that they focus on is the human rights of those people especially when it comes to their female population. Saudi Arabia exemplifies the essential flaws and errors of U. It was founded in 1989 at the initiative of the Arab Organisation for Human Rights, the Arab Lawyers Union, and the Tunisian League for Human Rights and with the support of the United Nations Centre for Human Rights.
When looking towards the future, there is considerable uncertainty from academics and practitioners as to how this revolutionary period is likely to play out, in the future and whether or not these dramatic changes in the region are going to create a suitable framework for the protection of human rights, or whether there is a danger that the situation will become worse, before it gets better. Human-rights mechanisms are the subject of chapter 5. In the final weeks of the Mosul battle between May and July, consistent reports emerged that Iraqi forces, including the Emergency Response Division, Federal Police and the Iraqi Security Forces, had detained, tortured and extrajudicially executed men and boys who were fleeing the fighting. The following are excerpts from the report. For certain offences, Iranian women face sentences of flogging and stoning to death. Surely those experiences could provide valuable resources from which Middle Eastern people and regimes can benefit. This type of aid only serves to promote a culture of corruption in the recipient countries and keeps unelected officials in power.
They include , , and. These strengthened human rights forces now insert their voices into virtually every unfolding political contest — openly bringing past and present abuses to light and pushing human rights stances into constitutions-drafting processes, parliamentary agendas, and socio-economic policies. There are promising signs that this is beginning to happen. Click through the gallery below for 10 examples of human rights abuses in the kingdom. Women have served as ministers in the Syrian, Jordanian, Egyptian, Iraqi, and Tunisian governments, and as Vice President in Iran.
But we have yet to hear about significant U. Islamic clerics continue to enjoy a tremendous amount of power, and often exercise great influence in the field of education. They also endured harsh conditions, including severe overcrowding, poor ventilation and lack of access to showers or toilets. In Libya, hundreds possibly thousands of people have been detained since 1969. Elections in Iraq in 2005 were marred by terrorism and violence and call of ballot tampering and forgeries whilst the Palestinian elections in 2006 where Hamas claimed victory saw a wave of condemnation from the international community with the United States and the European Union refusing to recognize the result as Hamas is a recognized terrorist organization. It can be argued therefore that the idea that democracy promotion would spread human rights and peace has backfired in the Palestinian territories as infighting between Hamas and Fatah has led to the take over of the Gaza Strip by Hamas and the collapse of the coalition government; throwing not only Palestinian, but also Israeli-Palestinian politics in disarray, whilst the international boycott on Hamas led to sanctions on the Gaza Strip and West Bank in 2007 with devastating effects on the Palestinian populations livelihood. Given the way human rights discourses and Western foreign policy in the region have been historically entwined, rights gains in these symbolically loaded areas will be most effective when fought primarily in the domestic realm.
Although religious rivalry and intolerance is nothing new in the Middle East, the rise of Moslem fundamentalism has refocused the attention of many Arab governments on the main danger to their sovereignty. The harassment and extortion amongst refugees is common, just like rapes. Although all factions understand the need to find an equitable formula for peaceful existence, most efforts to find one have been abortive. Many have been executed and others have suffered systematic harassment and persecution. Both practical and theoretical impediments to realizing human rights have influenced the shape of things in the Middle East. Suicide attacks on 30 May outside an ice-cream parlour and a government building in Baghdad killed at least 27 people and wounded at least 50. In Saudi Arabia at least 54 people were executed in 1988, many of them suspected political opponents.
Moreover, the existence of the idea of terrorism further emphasize this portion of the world since there are many allegations that terrorist groups are hiding in the Middle East. Ethical Issues and Potential Problems Dealing with issues such as human rights, particularly in a volatile political arena, has substantial ethical issues and care must be taken to ensure anonymity, particularly when collecting any primary research that may be available. By controlling rationality, critical analysis and planning as the necessary tools for governing, the ruling elites have contained society and its people. However, Israel's legal system has different sources. Egypt, pre 2011 revolution, had been making progress in education, access to vaccines and sanitized water for children.
Their punishments are fixed in the and the. The importance of this research, therefore, is to consider the impact that this period in history will have on the development of human rights in the region. On the other hand, most people in the Middle East considered these practices as part of their culture and identity rather than a violation of their rights Shariati. The last Israeli execution was carried out in 1962 as they have retained capital punishment not for ordinary crimes but purely exceptional circumstances. The Draft Charter for Human Rights in the Arab Homeland 1986 was based on this idea, focusing on the civil, political, cultural and finally the collective rights of the Arab people.