In the business world, however, capital is always expressed in terms of money. When a firm expands, the returns to scale increase because the indivisible factors are employed to their maximum capacity. Some economists are of the opinion that basically there are only two factors of production—land and labour. Two Features of Capital: Two important features of capital are: Firstly, it entails a sacrifice, since resources are devoted to making non-consumable capital goods instead of goods for immediate consumption. Capital Formation : People use capital goods like machines, equipment, etc. In fact, it is this enhanced productivity which represents the reward for the sacrifice involved in creating capital. Importance of the Factors From an economics perspective, every business must have the four elements in place for production to occur.
In the beginning, Henry had to do most of the work himself. In order to make a profit, a person usually needs certain things, or certain economic inputs. Normally, land means surface of earth. The efficient operation of an enterprise, irrespective of its nature and form, depends on certain human relations and human qualities such as initiative, leadership organisational ability and controlling capacity. Some scholars include enterprise - entrepreneurship - as a fourth factor while many argue that it should fall under labor. Increasingly, however, economists began to emphasize the role of the entrepreneur, who was not simply an organizing force but also an innovative, creative force capable of combining the other factors in visionary ways.
It refers to machines, roads, factories, schools, infrastructure, and office buildings which humans have produced to create goods and services. The behaviour of other firms that recognize the possibility that their competitors may retaliate oligopoly is still a theory of production subject to controversy and research. Those who controlled the land controlled not just the natural resources but also the very people who lived on the land, and those in control had the authority to regulate the work these people did. Any adjustments made at the headwaters of the economic river will affect nearly everything that happens downstream. His toothbrush dispenses minute amounts of sap from the baobab tree, a rare tree found only in Africa.
In that event the product supply curve as calculated will overstate the increase in output that will be elicited by an increase in price. Additional money capital entering into the market may be transferred to the industries which have chances for development. This objection can be got around by applying the recently developed techniques of , which employ observable data without recourse to the production function and lead to practically the same conclusions. People with new ideas find it difficult to get ahead 1. The reward or income for labor is wages.
The employed only include people over 16 who worked in the past week. Three isocost lines are shown, corresponding to variable costs amounting to v 1, v 2, and v 3. For facing uncertainties he may get profit or may incur loss. Alternative uses: Although the total supply of land is fixed, land has alternative uses. As such, factors of production, such as land and capital, is owned by workers. In most parts of India, for example, land has many alternative uses.
The other two isocost lines shown are interpreted similarly. The number and definition of factors vary, depending on theoretical purpose, empirical emphasis, or. Labor as a Factor of Production is the work done by people. In other words, what is bought and sold is the service of labour, not labour itself. Factors of production are the resources used by a company to produce goods and services.
The of , , and their followers focus on physical in defining its factors of production and discuss the distribution of cost and value among these factors. Thus the quantity that the firm will produce in response to any price can be found in Figure 3 by reading the marginal cost curve, and for this reason the marginal cost curve is said to be the short-run for the firm. It includes the services of a factory worker, a doctor, a teacher, a lawyer, an engineer, an officer, etc. As a matter of fact, labour and entrepreneur are quite distinct from each other. Fixed and Circulating Capital: Fixed capital means durable capital like tools, machinery and factory buildings, which can be used for a long time. No one can destroy the land. Land plays an important part in production because land itself and the resources on it are usually limited.
Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is the driving force behind the creation of a business. Creation of Savings: These resources play an important part in promoting development activities in the country. Many types of labour have to take risk. The difference in skill levels and terminology also helps companies and entrepreneurs arbitrage corresponding disparities in pay scales. But, it is occupationally mobile.