According to Heggarty and Renfrew, Dravidian languages may have spread into the subcontinent with the spread of farming. In 2010, heavy floods hit in India and damaged the archaeological site of , where ancient copper smelting furnaces were found dating back almost 5,000 years. Though seal inscriptions do seem to have written information, scholars have not been able to decipher the Indus script. They enjoyed chariot racing, gambling and fighting. The location where the Indus valley civilisation once flourished is a desert today. Yet shortly after Wheeler proposed his theory, other scholars dismissed it by explaining that the skeletons were not victims of invasion massacres, but rather the remains of hasty burials. Rain clouds are carried from the seas surrounding the Indian subcontinent by monsoons - seasonal winds - across the lowlands to the mountains where, cooled and trapped, they release their life-giving waters.
The Harappan people were peace loving. The appearance of a distinctive and increasingly specialized elite supported by the peasant majority of the Chinese people, the growth of towns and the first cities, the spread of trade, and the formulation of a written language all indicated that a major civilization was emerging in China. They also had regular trade with Arabia and Mesopotamia. Their techniques of growing rice and cotton were preserved by cultivating peoples fleeing nomadic invaders, and were later taken up by the newly arrived Indo-Aryan tribes. The largest number of sites are in , , , , , states in India, and , , and provinces in Pakistan. Most of the region is now arid and desolate, crisscrossed by dried-up riverbeds and virtually devoid of forests.
An Indus Valley site has been found on the River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the valley in northwestern Pakistan, at on the near , India, and at on the , only 28 km from Delhi. There is evidence of some level of contact between the Indus Valley Civilization and the. Equally notable is the lack of strong resemblances to other early civilizations to the west of Mesopotamia, which indicates that Harappa was not a colony. But because of their organization and the consistency, or relative consistency amongst these different sites that are so far flung, this is a large distance even on modern day terms, but especially if we're talking about four or five thousand years ago. The streams that flow from high in the Himalayas are fed by monsoon rains. The language brought by the Aryans gained supremacy over the local languages: the origin of the most widely spoken languages today in south Asia goes back to the Aryans, who introduced the into the Indian subcontinent. They might have come in several waves and brought their culture but their being the cause of destroying Indus culture does not seem attested by either the archaeological evidences or by the numerous revised radio-carbon dates for the various stages of the culture now available.
This theory could further argue that the focus of Indus civilization was the new channels of Ghaggar-Hakra. It seems likely that there was not one centralized and all-powerful state but that various classes and centers of power were integrated into a decentralized structure. Architecture Harappans demonstrated advanced architecture with dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms, and protective walls. The advanced drainage system and baths of the great cities were built over or blocked. The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage developed and used in cities throughout the region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East, and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today.
According to David McAlpin, the Dravidian languages were brought to India by immigration into India from. Harappans demonstrated advanced architecture with dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms, and protective walls. Now just to appreciate how extensive this Indus Valley civilization was, I will show you this map. These migrants were to be called Aryans and to be classified as Indo-Europeans, their speech related to modern European languages except Basque, Finnish and Hungarian. The conquering Zhou did not destroy Chinese society and culture; they were assimilated by them so thoroughly that they became Chinese. The final and the last shift completely disconnected the feeder channel from the Ghaggar system. The word for obtaining cattle, gosati, became synonymous with making war.
Like other pastoral peoples, men dominated the women. The modern village of Harappa, used as a railway station during the Raj, is six kilometers 3. There is evidence of burned-out settlements and the flight of refugees through the passes into the Himalayas to the north. They raised cotton and cattle and to a lesser extent, water buffalo, sheep, goats, and pigs , barley, wheat, chickpeas, mustard, sesame, and other plants. The artefacts of this period comprised a copper bangle, a copper arrowhead, bangles of terracotta, beads of carnelian, lapis lazuli and steatite, bone point, stone saddle and quern. Too much flooding and destroyed crops ----- Well your wrong. This theory was more elaborated by Raikes 1964, 1975 and Dales 1966.
European Journal of Human Genetics. Cock-fighting was thought to have religious and ritual significance, with domesticated chickens bred for religion rather than food although the city may have been a point of origin for the worldwide domestication of chickens. The engineering skill of the Harappans was remarkable, especially in building docks. The river changes disrupted agricultural and economic systems, and many people left the cities of the Indus Valley region. Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia. The massive walls of Indus cities most likely protected the Harappans from floods and may have dissuaded military conflicts. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of and efficient municipal governments which placed a high priority on , or, alternatively, accessibility to the means of religious ritual.
Tactonic Phenomena Theory: This theory is basically derived to explain the water deposited layers encountered at Mohenjo-Daro city area. There must have been wars which might have engulfed the total Indus valley civilisation. Jean-Francois Jarrige argues for an independent origin of Mehrgarh. There also are a few smashed skulls, but these have been dated somewhat earlier than the period when the civilization disappears from history. They were skilled fighters, so their attack might have led to the destruction of the Harappan Civilization.