Indeed, energy generation from such incineration offsets net greenhouse gas emissions from electric utilities. The environmental data gathered by the task force on the recycled and virgin-fiber-based systems included energy use and environmental releases in the form of solid-waste output, releases in several categories of air emissions and waterborne wastes, and water use-effluent flow in manufacturing. These copolymers were manufactured by reactive extrusion. Because of the timeand site-specific variation in much of the data presented, caution should be exercised in applying these average data to characterize the environmental attributes of individual facilities or activities. Pulp provides significant offsets to balance climate change impacts due to sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
The first assumption appears to be consistent with much of the literature, if long-term balance is considered. Recently, however, awareness of the potential power of environmental issues in market control has also been growing. The current hierarchy of waste management options is critically discussed, and in its place is suggested a holistic approach that assesses the overall environmental impacts and economic costs of the whole system. Followed by a general description of the proposed concept, each concept element is presented in detail. The Boustead report was commissioned by Progressive Bag Affiliates, a plastic bag industry organization. The project will provide answers to the following questions: - What are the current total environmental, economic and social impacts of the eucalypt and maritime pine forest sectors in Portugal? Characterization and assessment of porous tool materials using computed tomography are also outlined and discussed.
Plastic shopping bags outperform paper bags environmentally — on manufacturing, on reuse, and on solid waste volume and generation. Our analysis did not include releases from disposal facilities used for residuals from either the virgin-or the recycled-fiber-based systems. And an update is provided on the award-winning industrial symbiosis project in Kalundborg, Denmark. Except for energy use in harvesting trees and transporting logs, the environmental effects associated with obtaining virgin fiber from trees are not considered in this life-cycle inventory or in others , because of their largely qualitative nature. This chapter discusses the needs of society: less waste, and then an effective way to manage the inevitable waste still produced.
In using this approach, the task force has provided a way for purchasers to address all of the major environmental impacts of their paper use. The typical case is where legislation is introduced that, although appearing to encourage environmentally appropriate activities locally, actually causes severe problems on a more global scale. For example, conservation of energy or water in the manufacturing process will reduce the environmental impacts of that process. How to calculate an ecological balance? In our analysis, therefore, we also indicate the fraction of purchased energy used in the virgin and recycled systems that is derived from fossil fuels. The substitution of heavy fuel oil by natural gas in the pulp and paper production processes seems to be environmentally positive.
Besides that concern regarding pollution prevention, other issues with relevance to the context of sustainability, such as the energy consumption, can also be dealt with. Albany had lower water use impacts. Cite this article as: Dias, A. ConclusionsThe pulp and paper production stages were found to be of significance for almost all of the inventory parameters as well as for the impact assessment categories. Effects on carbon storage of conversion of old-growth forests to young forests.
Nevertheless, the literature seems to indicate that factors such as rotation times and other silviculture practices can affect this assumption. The paper distribution and the final disposal stages were only of importance for some of the inventory parameters and some of the impact categories. The main goal of this study was to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the entire life cycle of the printing and writing paper produced in Portugal from Eucalyptus globulus pulp and consumed in Germany, in order to identify the processes with the largest environmental impacts. Pulp production, electricity, and fuels for product production drive fossil fuel depletion. Environmental Conservation 19 2 :178.
Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Several reports were found for the forestry, paper and pulp, food and beverage, energy and electricity, waste management, and automotive industries, while no reports were found for the textile, footwear and clothing, and base metal and mineral industries. Modeling age distribution and physical characteristics of waste paper. This resulting book provides a base of current knowledge, identifying what data are lacking, where future efforts should be focused, and what is known about the methodologies used to assess environmental impacts. To better assess the use of wood as a raw material, the U. The results of the research proved that electricity has the most considerable participation in the overall environmental impacts in both production processes, followed by either virgin pulp or heat. Life Cycle Analysis Manufacturing a product can be very complex.
One recommendation is for a 50:50 allocation based on economic value Assies, 1991. Goal, Scope and BackgroundThe environmental sustainability is one of the current priorities of the Portuguese pulp and paper industry. Life cycle assessment and environmental management systems. The goal of this paper is to give an overview of the main aspects involved in the manufacture of moulded pulp products. Whenever possible and feasible, average or typical data from industry were collected. Most business analysts would agree that in this case, the true marginal costs should be used: If an energy source is limited, it should not be distinguished from nonrenewable sources. Because of the growing interest in environmentally conscious manufacturing, the pulp and paper industry has begun to expand its regulatory based environmental management systems to include a continuous improvement orientation.
This comparison is based on the materials and energy used as well as emissions and waste resulting from the production of tissue paper. The book also focuses on national and international efforts to develop integrated environmental, economic, and energy accounting methologies. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. For several paper grades we examined, the virgin-fiber-based system uses more total, but less purchased, energy than does the recycled-fiber-based system. Given that green movements such as Greenpeace have made biodiversity a high priority, it would be short-sighted for the pulp and paper industry to omit this issue. Life-cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles, Vigon, B. In this November 2002 article, Beverly Hassell, a chemist with the American Chemical Society, describes findings of a study published in Environmental Science and Technology that estimate the environmental impacts of producing microchips.
This is because the primary means of managing waste paper is through landfilling. Goal, Scope and Background The environmental sustainability is one of the current priorities of the Portuguese pulp and paper industry. Second, we are most interested in assessing the most typical or representative case associated with management of discarded paper. The study compared traditional grocery bags made from polyethylene, bags made from compostable plastics, and paper bags made, using at least 30% recycled fibers. Considering that energy consumed by the pulp production processes comes from renewable fuels, this stage was also the most contributing to renewable energy consumption. Anything that can be done to replace or reduce chlorine dioxide consumption will benefit the environment. These consequences must be viewed from a larger perspective, however, one that is typically ignored in life-cycle analyses.