Segregation, the Court said, was not discrimination. He found Plessy guilty of refusing to leave the white car. That that was not prohibited by the 14th Amendment. In Plessy's case, however, he decided that the state could choose to regulate railroad companies that operated only within Louisiana. If you have three days. The argument necessarily assumes that if, as has been more than once the case and is not unlikely to be so again, the colored race should become the dominant power in the state legislature, and should enact a law in precisely similar terms, it would thereby relegate the white race to an inferior position. Segregation was the purpose of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Black nurses attending white children were permitted to ride in white compartments, however. If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them upon the same plane. In 1892, in a planned act of civil disobedience, Plessy boarded a train in New Orleans and sat in the car reserved for whites only. Board of Education relate to the verdict in Plessy v. If this be so, it is not by reason of anything found in the act, but solely because the colored race chooses to put that construction upon it.
In the pivotal case of Plessy v. Please before you email me! Students who feel inferior often spend more time alone. Samuel : Do you think you would have done better in an integrated school? My parents stressed the importance of getting an education. I wanna make that point because, it's pretty clear that Harlan believed, for example, that maintenance of segregated schools would be constitutional and it's also true that Harlan voted for to say that designation laws were constitutional. It was designed in order to maintain their social inferiority through legal institutions.
Quite significantly in addition to the actual federal laws that Congress passed, the country passed and ratified the 14th Amendment. The lawyers who brought the Plessy case were quite clear about this. The Louisiana law and the majority misinterpret the civil rights protected in our color-blind. Over the next four years, his case would work its way through the legal system until it landed on the steps of the U. That's one way you can look at it. Segregation often led to relatively equal opportunities.
When the government, therefore, has secured to each of its citizens equal rights before the law and equal opportunities for improvement and progress, it has accomplished the end for which it was organized, and performed all of the functions respecting social advantages with which it is endowed. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas and congressional civil rights acts of the 1950s and 1960s that systematic segregation under state law was ended. Full-color photographs, detailed footnotes, and a chronology and timeline help put the proceedings in context. A statute which implies merely a legal distinction between the white and colored races -- a distinction which is founded in the color of the two races, and which must always exist so long as white men are distinguished from the other race by color -- has no tendency to destroy the legal equality of the two races. On June 7, 1892, Homer Plessy agreed to be arrested for refusing to move from a seat reserved for whites. In 1892, Homer Plessy, who was one-eighth black, purchased a first-class ticket and sat in the white-designated railroad car.
The assumption was that once the Court ruled, it was going to be an awfully long time before you could get the Court to reverse itself, and that's in fact what happened. And it's important to remember that as of the 1890s the Supreme Court had not admitted to ever having reversed one of its own decisions. Procedural History: The Committee of Citizens appealed the decision of Judge Ferguson to the Louisiana Supreme Court. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law. The schools were even in bad condition. Under the allegations of his petition, it may undoubtedly become a question of importance whether, under the laws of Louisiana, the petitioner belongs to the white or colored race. In my opinion, the judgment this day rendered will, in time, prove to be quite as pernicious as the decision made by this tribunal in the.
So was separate ever equal in theory or in practice? It set a new legal precedent on the issue of segregation. Ferguson slowly moved up to the Supreme Court. Unfortunately, state governments were passing legislation that codified inequality between the races. Nonetheless, despite the presence of 16 black legislators in the state assembly, the law was passed. Now, one of the interesting questions is, how much difference it would have made, given the sort of culture of the Southern States even if the Court had held that it was unconstitutional for the state to formally require segregation among the races? Encouraged, the committee decided to press a test case on intrastate travel. Plessy, a man who was one-eighth black, but classified as black by Louisiana law, refused to leave in order to trigger a case about the legality of segregation.
So the railroads didn't really wanna be bothered with this kind of law, and so this particular railroad Eastern Railway, was willing to agree to set up the situation to challenge the law. And everyone knew that's what Jim Crow was all about. It cemented the idea that separate was not synonymous to segregation. Poll taxes, literacy requirements, and grandfather clauses not only prevented blacks from voting, but also made them ineligible to serve on jury pools or run for office. All three cases took place in the twentieth century. Earl Maltz suggests that it's difficult to tell if a different outcome in Plessy versus Ferguson would have made much difference in the actions of Southern States, if there was no political will to enforce integration anyway.
I think that it's important to understand what was the actual nature of Harlan's dissent rather than the way that it is actually portrayed. Though the 1875 Civil Rights Act had stated that all races were entitled to equal treatment in public accommodations, an 1883 Supreme Court decision clarified that the law did not apply to private persons or corporations. Laws requiring the establishment of separate schools for children of each race were most common; however, segregation was soon extended to encompass most public and semi-public facilities. Homer Plessy objected to it, because a, the facilities weren't really equal and he objected to it because he was in part because he was classified as black, but also in general because he thought that was demeaning. The Court stated that the 14 th Amendment could not have been intended to enforce social equality since Caucasians and African Americans do not desire to be commingled. Plessy appealed to the Supreme Court of Louisiana, which upheld Ferguson's decision.