During the final days of the session, the church's fathers met to discuss issues surrounding the invocation of relics and the use of statues and images in religious worship. This mean that art forms like printmaking, not popular elsewhere in Europe, became very successful in Germany as people flocked to printers for small, inexpensive scenes for personal worship and meditation on the Gospels. Prosecuted for , she paid a small fine without complaint, but flatly refused to pay the additional sum the court ordered be paid to the convent to replace the statue, putting her at risk of serious penalties. Here again we see an image that consciously leaves out all reference to religious matter. And that these things may be the more faithfully observed, the holy Synod ordains, that no one be allowed to place, or cause to be placed, any unusual image, in any place, or church, howsoever exempted, except that image have been approved of by the bishop.
Their works exemplified Borromeo's principles by being readily intelligible and treating their subjects in clear and forceful ways. Keep in mind too, that for some time the Church had been seen as an institution plagued by internal power struggles at one point in the late 1300s and 1400s, church was ruled by three Popes simultaneously. Capable priests were needed for the education of the faithful, and, thus, seminaries multiplied to prepare the clergy for a more life in the service of the church. The Reformation also gave secular rulers far greater control over the appointment of bishops and other clergy. To talk about art was to talk about politics and religion and sometimes those talks could get pretty heated. Jesuits were also among the first missionaries to East Asia of modern times, contributing to the spread of Catholicism around the globe.
Later, the targets would expand to include non-Lutheran Protestants, including Calvin. In the Spanish colony of Naples, the Catholic Neapolitan School of Painting 1600-56 was led by a series of devout artists such as: 1578-1635 , 1591-1652 , 1575-1642 and 1582-1647. This allowed for the widespread availability of visually persuasive imagery. The churches, as they developed, accepted a limited role for larger works of art in churches, and also encouraged prints and book illustrations. Albrecht Dürer Not surprisingly, the earliest Protestant artists painted in styles very reminiscent of Catholic painters of the day.
The Protestant Reformation was centered in Northern Europe and these artists started focusing less on large-scale public art and more on smaller pieces meant for individual worship at home. Although attempts have been made to identify individual artists, most paintings remain attributed to anonymous masters. The , a large and very disorderly wave of Calvinist mob destruction of Catholic images and church fittings that spread through the in the summer of 1566 was the largest outbreak of this sort, with drastic political repercussions. So, all this religious art that emphasized the power of the Catholic Church had to go. The Antwerp School comprised many generations of artists and is known for portraiture, animal paintings, still lifes, and prints.
Iconoclastic incidents during the Calvinist 'Second Reformation' in Germany provoked reactive riots by Lutheran mobs, while Protestant image-breaking in the Baltic region deeply antagonized the neighbouring Eastern Orthodox, a group with whom reformers might have hoped to make common cause. The stylistic changes evident in the visual arts at the beginning of the Baroque period can in part be traced to historical developments that occurred in the wake of the 1545—1563 , the church council that was to define the character of and its teachings until modern times. In the early Reformation artists, especially and and , made paintings for churches showing the leaders of the reformation in ways very similar to Catholic saints. Oh look, by sheer coincidence, we've got two artists working in the same studio and on similar paintings. Mary in Wittenberg, depicts Luther preaching in the pulpit, with a crucified Jesus in the center to represent the need for Christ to be at the center of a sermon. Martin Luther was very devout and had experienced a spiritual crisis. In this sense the subject matter of this piece could be considered a from of iconography as the artist is using its original meaning to represent something new.
The roles of the Virgin Mary, the Saints and the Sacraments were also a distinctive feature of Catholicism and were to be illustrated accordingly. Usually unadorned and somehwat lacking in aesthetic appeal, pictures, sculptures, and ornate altar-pieces are largely absent; there are few or no candles; and crucifixes or crosses are also mostly absent. Worse was to follow, as the High Renaissance gave way to the optical pretensions of , during the 1520s and 30s: as exemplified by works like the Deposition Altarpiece 1526-8 in the Capponi Chapel, Florence, by 1494-1557. This development had a massive ripple effect through everything that the Catholic Church touched, including the family, work and the economy, politics, law, the arts … literally every area of life. Characteristics of Catholic Counter-Reformation Art Reformers first stressed the need to distinguish the one true Church from the breakaway group of Protestant churches. . The Church initially ignored Martin Luther, but Luther's ideas and variations of them, including Calvinism quickly spread throughout Europe.
The Four Winds provided the public with almost a thousand and engravings over two decades. In fact, Caravaggio's use of street people as models for his sacred figures, led to such realism that he was criticised by conservatives for showing insufficient respect to the Virgin Mary. Danae by Jan Mabuse: One of the most well-known Romanists was Jan Mabuse. Later Protestant taste turned from the display in churches of religious scenes, although some continued to be displayed in homes. Out of this campaign of Counter-Reformation art emerged the anti-Mannerist 1590-1630 - led by Annibale Carracci along with brother 1557-1602 and cousin 1555-1619 - and then the international movement we know as , a style which lasted until 1700 or later. This engraving, from 1510, well before the Reformation, contains no reference to religion or , although much of his other work features both.
For the most part, however, Reformation iconoclasm resulted in a disappearance of religious figurative art, compared with the amount of secular pieces that emerged. This influenced the Renaissance periods in Germany, France, England, the Netherlands, and Poland. To understand the Protestant Reform movement, we need to go back in history to the early 16th century when there was only one church in Western Europe - what we would now call the Roman Catholic Church - under the leadership of the Pope in Rome. The Protestant church was therefore able, as the Catholic Church had been doing since the early 15th century, to bring their theology to the people, and religious education was brought from the church into the homes of the common people, thereby forming a direct link between the worshippers and the divine. Borromeo, a major figure in many aspects of Catholic reform, published his treatise Instructions for Builders and Decorators of Churches, in 1577, and its 33 chapters considered such subjects as the proper church layout, design, and furnishings necessary for Christian worship.