In terms of sheer numbers, the casualties were much higher on the Indian side. On religion it was felt that there had been too much interference with indigenous traditions, both Hindu and Muslim. The domination of higher castes in the Bengal Army has been blamed in part for initial mutinies that led to the rebellion. When the mood of the sepoys turned against their masters, they remembered Kabul and that the British were not invincible. They proceeded slowly towards Delhi and fought, killed, and hanged numerous Indians along the way. Finally the British forces captured Lucknow. Canning tried to make amends for the error and the offending cartridges were withdrawn, but by then the damage had been done.
Bahadur Shah was captured, tried and deported to Burma where he died in 1862. At Jhansi Hugh Rose suppressed the revolt and Rani Laxmi Bai died on the battle field. Despite no discernible reason for a change in practice, some sepoys believed that the cartridges that were standard issue with the new rifle were greased with pork fat which was regarded as unclean by and cow fat which angered the as cows were equal to a goddess to them. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region. Educated Indians were denied promotions and appointments to high office. According to them, the Hindus and Muslims participated equally in the revolt and displayed a new bond of unity against the British. The cartridges had to be bitten off before loading and the grease was reportedly made of beef and Pig fat.
Although most of the mutinous sepoys in Delhi were Hindus, a significant proportion of the insurgents were Muslims. European officers' and civilians' quarters were attacked, and four civilian men, eight women and eight children were killed. While the action of the sepoys in freeing their 85 imprisoned comrades appears to have been spontaneous, some civilian rioting in the city was reportedly encouraged by local police commander. Sherer, Daily Life during the Indian Mutiny, 1858, p. In looking for the causes of the Rebellion the authorities alighted on two things: religion and the economy. The policy to tax religious schools further anguished both Hindus.
In March 1857, Mangal Pandey, a sepoy in Barrackpore, had refused to use the cartridge and attacked his senior officers. Their Colonel confronted them supported by artillery and cavalry on the parade ground, but after some negotiation withdrew the artillery, and cancelled the next morning's parade. The Muslims formed a larger percentage of the 18 irregular cavalry units within the Bengal army, whilst Hindus were mainly to be found in the 84 regular infantry and cavalry regiments. Thousands of innocent people were massacred and hundreds were hanged. There was discrimination among the British and Indian soldiers. He has also suggested that Sikhs felt insulted by the attitude of sepoys who, in their view, had beaten the only with British help; they resented and despised them far more than they did the British. Following the disarming and disbandment of an additional seventeen Bengal Native Infantry regiments, which were suspected of planning mutiny, only twelve survived to serve in the new post-mutiny army.
Pin It See all 3 photos Moderates Created a Wide Awakening The Moderates were successful in exposing the exploiting character and the evil results of the British policies. She died, fighting to the very end. The Civil Service Act was passed which provided for competitive examination of 1861 transferred the European troops of the company to the crown. There were six main centres of revolt in these regions namely Kanpur, Lucknow, Bareilly, Jhansi, Gwalior and Arrah in Bihar. He was arrested and then executed by the British in early April. The rebellion saw the end of the 's rule in India. At this time, the Enfield rifle was introduced in the army.
The government regarded the native rulers as the bulwark against the masses and henceforth followed a policy of protecting this reactionary segment of the Indian society. Hindu and Muslim soldiers protested against this. The rebellion is known by many names, including the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of 1857, the Indian Insurrection, and in as the. The old king was captured and later deported to Rangoon where he died in 1862. Lucknow : Lucknow was the capital of Awadh. Although the revolt began as a military rising and it appears to be a great sequel in the long series of a number of mutinies, its causes were deeply rooted in the changing conditions of the times.
As time passed, the powers of the commanding officers reduced and the government became more unfeeling or distant from the concerns of the sepoys. So far as the military causes of Indian National Movement are concerned—there was great inequality in the treatment between the Indian sepoys and their British counterparts in terms of salary and benefits. The justice system was considered to be inherently unfair to the Indians. Later in April sepoy troopers at refused the Enfield cartridges, and, as punishment, they were given long prison terms, fettered, and put in jail. But insensitive British-imposed social measures that affected Hindu society came to an abrupt end. On 25 July, mutiny erupted in the garrisons of. Background To regard the rebellion merely as a sepoy is to underestimate the root causes leading to it.
Canning tried to make amends for the error and the offending cartridges were withdrawn, but by then the damage had been done. Consequently, what needs to be reiterated is that the Great Rebellion of 1857 forms a major milestone in the germination of this idea. After being defeated at Jhansi, she captured Gwalior with the help of Tantya Tope and Afghan guards. Political Causes: Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General of India till 1848-1856. The order that forbade the sepoys from wearing caste and sectarian marks hurt their sentiments deeply. British civilians, including women and children, were murdered as well as the British officers of the sepoy regiments.
These soldiers lost their means of livelihood. They also released prisoners from jail, plundered the treasury and burnt land records at many pieces. It announced that the policy of territorial extension was to be abandoned. Kanpur was recaptured by the British after fresh reinforcements arrived. India now came under the direct rule of the British Crown.
The Indian army was also extensively reorganized. For several weeks, it seemed likely that disease, exhaustion and continuous sorties by rebels from Delhi would force the Company forces to withdraw, but the outbreaks of rebellion in the were forestalled or suppressed, allowing the of British, Sikh and Pakhtun soldiers under to reinforce the besiegers on the Ridge on 14 August. Main events of the revolt : Soon there was a rebellion in the Meerut Cantonment. The Ilbert Bill had the effect only of causing a and the end of the prospect of perfect equality before the law. Violence, which sometimes betrayed exceptional cruelty, was inflicted on both sides, on British officers, and civilians, including women and children, by the rebels, and on the rebels, and their supporters, including sometimes entire villages, by British reprisals; the cities of Delhi and were laid waste in the fighting and the British retaliation. Wagner also stresses the importance of The Last Mughal: The Fall of a Dynasty, Delhi 1857.