Approximately midway between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis, all the aponeuroses move to the anterior wall of the rectus sheath. The common iliac is represented by the upper third of this line, the external iliac by the remaining two-thirds. It is semilunar in outline and lies within the following boundaries: the lower edge of the left lung, the anterior border of the spleen, the left costal margin and the inferior margin of the left lobe of the liver. The superior part is horizontal and extends from the pylorus to the right lateral line; the descending part is situated medial to the right lateral line, from the transpyloric line to a point midway between the transpyloric and transtubercular lines. The coils of the ileum lie toward the right in the right lumbar and iliac regions, in the right half of the umbilical region, and in the hypogastric region; a portion of the ileum is within the pelvis. Finally, the rectus abdominis functions to bend the spine forward.
The abdomen is sometimes divided into four quadrants by a longitudinal median line and a transverse line through the umbilicus. If its proximal extremity persists it forms a Meekel's diverticulum, a projection 3 to 7 cm. The position of the inguinal canal is indicated by a line joining these two points. Top surface anatomy quizzes : : test your knowledge of the landmarks of the abdomen : can you name the main anatomical areas of the head? Some such as , and rely on surface anatomy. Movement and Posture Abdominal muscles are also required for the maintenance of posture and balance, as well as movement. Surface Anatomy and Surface Markings. So, we have the linea alba in the midline, we have the umbilicus and then lateral to it we have a pair of semilunar lines, here and here.
Anatomists divide the lower limb into the thigh the part of the limb between the and the and the leg which refers only to the area of the limb between the knee and the. The pyramidalis muscle stretches from the pubic bone to the linea alba, joining before the umbilicus. Gest and Jaye Schlesinger via University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, edited by Patrick W. Front of , showing surface relations of , purple , blue , and red outline. So, this abdominal region as positioned inferior to the thorax. The Rectus lies between the linea alba and the linea semilunaris; the former is indicated by the middle line, the latter by a curved line, convex lateralward, from the tip of the cartilage of the ninth rib to the public tubercle; at the level of the umbilicus the linea semilunaris is about 7 cm. The umbilicus lies on the disk between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae, about 2.
This information is intended for medical education, and does not create any doctor-patient relationship, and should not be used as a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment. The position of the liver varies according to the posture of the body. The transverse abdominus muscle and internal obliques affect posture by providing spinal support during rotation and lateral flexion, and stabilize the spine when standing. Surface Anatomy of the Abdomen. The line of the iliac colon is from the end of the descending colon to the left lateral line at the level of the anterior superior iliac spine.
The pancreas lies in front of the second lumbar vertebra. The upper digitations of origin of Obliquus externus are well-marked in a muscular subject, interdigitating with those of Serratus anterior; the lower digitations are covered by the border of Latissimus dorsi and are not visible. The lower portions of the lung and pleura are shown on the right side. The transverse abdominal muscle passes behind the rectus abdominis to meet the linea alba. Please do not forget to share this page and follow our social media to help further develop our website. Color Atlas of Anatomy — A Photographic Study of the Human Body 7th ed.
The umbilicus is at the level of the fibrocartilage between the third and fourth lumbar vertebræ. On the front of the abdomen, the line of the ureter runs from the hilum of the kidney to the pubic tubercle; on the back, from the hilum vertically downward, passing practically through the posterior superior iliac spine. Of the larger branches of the abdominal aorta, the celiac artery is 4 cm. The bones in relation with the surface of the abdomen are 1 the lower part of the vertebral column and the lower ribs and 2 the pelvis; the former have already been described page 1303 , the latter will be considered with the lower limb. The kneecap is the and patellar while the back of the knee is the popliteus and popliteal area. Its body extends along the transpyloric line, the bulk of it lying above this line to the tail which is in the left hypochondriac region slightly to the left of the lateral line and above the transpyloric. A space of some clinical importancethe space of Traubeoverlies the stomach and may be thus indicated.
So, we have a structure on either side of the body known as the anterior superior iliac spine and this is approximately here and here and these are the structures which you are supposed to hang your trousers on. The lateral border of this muscle is indicated by the linea semilunaris, a curved line running from the 9th rib to the pubic tubercle. Its position varies with the respiratory movements; during a deep inspiration it descends below the ribs; in expiration it is raised. The linea alba is the fibrous structure that forms the midline of the abdomen and provides a site of muscle attachment for the abdominal muscles. The are the gluteus or gluteal region and the pubic area is the. The small intestine is situated between the stomach and large intestine and consists of the three segments duodenum, jejunum, and ileum , each exhibiting distinct functional properties. The is the region between the chest and the.
The central region of the middle zone is the umbilical, and the two lateral regions the right and left lumbar. So, we are going to look at various surface landmarks which we can observe on the anterior and lateral aspects of the abdomen. Abdomen Anatomy The abdomen is comprised primarily of the digestive tract and other accessory organs which assist in digestion, the urinary system, spleen, and the abdominal muscles shown below. The lateral margin of the Obliquus externus is separated from that of the Latissimus dorsi by a small triangular intervalthe lumbar trianglethe base of which is formed by the iliac crest, and its floor by Obliquus internus. Digestive Tract The organs of the digestive tract consist of the small and large intestines, the stomach, cecum, and the appendix. So, from the anterior superior iliac spine which we can see here, we then have in the midline, the iliac crest and the pubic symphysis.