These managers view their employees as one of the most valuable assets to the company, driving the internal workings of the corporation. It is expected that once an employee does rise to a position of high level management, they will know a great deal more about the company and how it operates, and will be able to use Theory Z management theories effectively on the newer employees Luthans, 1989, p. Another part of the theory is that, theory Z workers can be trusted to do their jobs to their utmost ability so long as the management can be trusted to support them. They also believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation in itself. On that note, let us delve into the various theories of motivation at the workplace. Theory X - The Hard Approach and Soft Approach Under Theory X, management approaches can range from a hard approach to a soft approach. Theory Z also makes assumptions about company culture.
One of the most important pieces of this theory is that management must have a high degree of confidence in its workers in order for this type of participative management to work. Theory Z stresses the need to help workers become generalists, rather than specialists. This allows the employee to design, construct, and publish their work in a timely manner in co-ordinance to their workload and projects. The Company's headquarter is based in Denver, Colorado, and has 16 field offices located in 11 states. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated.
This theory assumes that workers will be participating in the decisions of the company to a great degree. Assumptions of Theory Y, in relation to Maslow's hierarchy put an emphasis on employee higher level needs, such as esteem needs and self-actualization. Ouchi wrote a book called Theory Z How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge 1981 , in this book; Ouchi shows how American corporations can meet the Japanese challenges with a highly effective management style that promises to transform business in the 1980s. To buy this book, please visit our. This firm used to provide best solutions and psychological assistance to its trusted consumers. The Managing of Police Organizations, Second Edition.
It might seem that the optimal approach to human resource management would lie somewhere between these extremes. Managers are always looking for mistakes from employees, because they do not trust their work. These managers are keen to make your employees comfortable in their work environment, help them achieve their self-actualization goals and give them guidance, when required. The Human Side of the Enterprise. These types of workers have a very well developed sense of order, discipline, a moral obligation to work hard, and a sense of cohesion with their fellow workers. Much like McGregor's theories, Ouchi's Theory Z makes certain assumptions about workers. The result was Theory Z—a development beyond Theory X and Theory Y that blended the best of Eastern and Western management practices.
The Japanese had discovered something that was giving them the competitive edge. He also points out; however, that management sometimes has a tendency to underestimate the ability of the workers to effectively contribute to the decision making process Bittel, 1989. He was a social psychologist who became the President of Antioch College. And also because the Japanese show a high level enthusiasm to work,some of the researchers claim that 'Z' in the theory Z stands for 'Zeal'. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level.
McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. Two reasons: 1 high-quality products and 2 low prices. Here the focus is on ensuring that your company has a strong set of values, and offers long-range approach to and a highly participatory style of management. International Journal of Recent Research Aspects. Theory-Y assumptions are: 1 physical and mental effort are natural and most people depending on the work environment find work to be a source of , 2 they generally, on their own , self-control, self-direction, , and ingenuity in pursuit of and collective company goals, 3 they either seek responsibility or learn to accept it willingly, and that 4 their full potential is not tapped in most organizations.
Another innovative management style developed by is also called. According to McGregor, there are two opposing approaches to implementing Theory X: the hard approach and the soft approach. Which theory do you subscribe to? McGregor believes both ends of the spectrum are too extreme for efficient real-world application. Slow promotions, group decision-making, and life-time employment may not be a good fit with companies operating in cultural, social, and economic environments where those work practices are not the norm. McGregor's work was rooted in motivation theory alongside the works of , who created the. While money may not be the most effective way to self-fulfillment, it may be the only way available. This managerial style is more effective when used in a workforce that is not essentially motivated to perform.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs consist of physiological needs lowest level , safety needs, love needs, esteem needs, and highest level. And the other is 's so-called style which was explained in his book Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge 1981 ; such style was popularized during the of the 1980s. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem. How to Succeed in a Japanese Company. But for this reason, Theory Z stresses the need for the workers to become generalists, rather than specialists, and to increase their knowledge of the company and its processes through job rotations and constant training. This approach is derived from Fred Fiedler's research over various leadership styles known as the. This theory assumes that workers will be participating in the decisions of the company to a great degree.
Find sources: — · · · · June 2016 Theory Z is a name for various theories of human built on 's. As a result, they must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives. S See also the article about building self-confidence, and assertiveness techniques. Douglas McGregor, Revisited: Managing the Human Side of the Enterprise p. Each type of their own pros and corn. They will believe that your employees enjoy their work and there is a chance for greater productivity by giving your people the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities, without being bogged down by rules. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management.