# Thurstone and likert scale. Thurstone Scale: Definition, Survey Questions with Examples 2019-01-16

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## How to analyze 7

It is made up of statements about a particular issue, and each statement has a numerical value indicating how favorable or unfavorable it is judged to be. Under what conditions is the one to be preferred above the other? Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree 7. You will need to reverse the response value for each of these items before summing for the total. A technique for the measurement of attitudes. The data has to be thoroughly checked to fulfill the strict formal of the model.

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## Thurstone scale

Assign each statement a score of 1 to 11 based on how strong you believe the statement is. If you find that the best statistical choice is a confusing statement, select the next best choice. For instance, you might use some form of brainstorming to create the items. The concept of simple structureâ€”his solution to the problem presented by the infinite number of positions of reference axesâ€”may well be his most noteworthy contribution to factor analysis. This procedure has been consistently adhered to in the scoring by the simpler method. The validity of such measures depends on the underlying interval nature of the scale. In terms of good research practice, an equidistant presentation by the researcher is important; otherwise a bias in the analysis may result.

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## How to analyze 7

Dividing the number of statements puts this score at a little above the midway point of the 1-11 scale. If an organization needs to compare two groups of five-point Likert data, it usually does not matter which analysis method is used. He also explored the less restrictive assumption that repeated judgments by the same individual will be normally distributed on the subjective continuum. Persons at opposite ends of the attitude continuum may at times check the same alternative. His first large study entailed 57 tests of cognitive functions, administered to 240 subjects 1938. I agree to use of cookies for these purposes. Likert scales typically range from 2 to 10 â€” with 5 or 7 being the most common.

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## Social Research Methods

Fair Use Statement: Scholars are permitted to reproduce this material for personal use. Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree 4. In so doing, Likert scaling assumes distances between each choice answer option are equal. In 1926 he pointed out incisively that two different definitions of mental age were being used: one that infers mental age from the chronological age for which a specified test performance is average; and a second that infers mental age from the average chronological age of persons performing at a specific level. Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research, And Practice.

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## Using the Thurstone Scale to Measure Attitudes & Opinions

A single upward movement of a rod extending under the open flaps swings them back into the original position. This is the statement with the least amount of variability across judges. The same number of individuals was used, of course, in both high and low groups. Research Methods Knowledge Base, 2nd Edition. In this situation, the respondent is forced to decide whether they lean more towards the agree or disagree end of the scale for each item.

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## Thurstone Scale: Definition, Survey Questions with Examples

He took issue with the mentalâ€”age concept that had become so important to psychologists and educators. I agree to use of cookies for these purposes. In a sense, this is a cumulative type of measurement as the attitude score of a respondent shows the cumulative favourable responses. Various psychological scales then in use seemed to Thurstone to imply that distributions of scores for various age groups differ only with respect to the mean, and his first paper on measurement theory presented a scaling method that permits both the mean and the dispersion to vary 1925 a. The Basics of Social Research. On the bottom row Logframer will calculate the total scores for the target population.

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## Likert Scale

It greatly facilitates finding the median of the scale values of the statements with which the individual agrees. In these and many other efforts, Thurstone was fortunate in having the collaboration of his wife. In one year, 1927, he published several articles dealing with various problems of subjective measurement, introducing the concept of discriminal dispersion and the law of comparative judgment, and relating the law of comparative judgment to the classical psychophysics of Weber and Fechner see 1927; Measurement of Values, pp. People check each of the statements to which they agree, and a score is computed, indicating their attitude. He served as president of the in 1932 and was the first president of the Psychometric Society in 1936. The Measurement of Attitude: A Psychophysical Method and Some Experiments With a Scale for Measuring Attitude Toward the Church.

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## Differences Between Thurstone and Likert Scales

First, you create a new variable which is the sum of all of the individual items for each respondent. The scale had internal reliability. Three years later he became a full professor, and in 1938 he was named Charles F. If interval nature is assumed for a comparison of two groups, the paired samples t-test is not inappropriate. All of these odd-numbered scales have a middle value is often labeled Neutral or Undecided. He also developed a new method of factor analysis designed to avoid the communality problem 1955.

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