This economic crisis was due to the rapidly increasing costs of government and to the overwhelming costs incurred by fighting two major wars: the and the. But the French Monarch, influenced by the clergies and nobles, ranked them as the Third Estate. In order to maintain , the grain market was submitted to harsh rules to ensure the quality of the bread and its availability at all time and for the entire population. France was a monarchy ruled by the king. But he was influenced by his queen Marie Antoinette who always interfered in the state affairs. The Open University is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority in relation to its secondary activity of credit broking.
The common people mostly ate bread to survive. This empire and the wars, which acquiring such expansive territory required, however, came with an enormous bill. In the Enlightenment, people had new ideas about government. Lesson Summary The decay of 18th-century France had as much to do with its economic disposition as anything else. His cunning publicity and accounting—his public balance sheet, the Compte rendu au roi, made the accounts look healthy—masked the scale of the problem from the French public, but by the chancellorship of Calonne, the state was looking for new ways to tax and meet their loan payments. Furthermore, contact between American revolutionaries and the French troops who served as anti-British mercenaries in North America helped spread revolutionary ideals to the French people. Every consultant gave the king the same proposal—that France required a fundamental modification in the methods of taxation on the public—and afterward, all consultants were promptly dismissed.
Indeed, a particularly acute crop failure took place in 1788 - an event most historians consider one of the touchstones of the ensuing popular uprising. This demanded a much higher level of taxation and less flexibility in raising money to deal with unforeseen emergencies. In France, the debt was financed at almost twice the interest rate as the debt across the Channel. France endured multiple constitutions, the heads of heads of state literally rolled, and then they ended up with a megalomaniacal little emperor by the name of Napoleon. This was partly due to failures in government, be they the squabbling instability of the king's ministers or embarrassing defeats in wars, somewhat a result of new enlightenment thinking, which increasingly undermined despotic monarchs, and partly due to the bourgeoisie seeking a voice in the administration.
The higher clergy lived in the midst of scandalous luxury and extravagance. An out of control national debt. Thus, the common people became rebellious. As a result,they joined together and held reform banquets where they couldvoice their thoughts and opinions and listen to others. From the 1750s, it became increasingly clear to many Frenchmen that the constitution of France, based on an absolutist style of monarchy, was no longer working. Especially when it came to taxes, the third estate was getting taxed more than the first and second estate, even though they were making much less money. Taxation was out of control and the Nobles and Clergy were tax exempt.
A starving citizen is unhappy and has a tendency to protest loudly. He would have absolutely nothing to do with his official duties as king, and his horribly decadent lifestyle contributed greatly to the economic plight France was in. Few of these owned enough land to support a family and most were forced to take on extra work as poorly paid labourers on larger farms. The Revolution led to many changes in France, which at the time of the Revolution, was the most powerful state in Europe. The Bourgeoisie formed the top most group of the Third Estate. In conclusion, there are not one, but numerous causes that led to the start of a new era in France, the French Revolution.
The American Revolution officially began with a document, the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. Worse, Louis seemed to be aware of the anti-monarchist forces that were threatening his family's rule, yet he failed to do anything to stop them. French aid proved decisive in forcing the main British army to surrender at the in 1781. The French population was divided into three estates. All of this and more contributed to the French Revolution not being quite as revolutionary as it could have been. They were replaced by , who supported the American Revolution and proceeded with a policy of taking large international loans instead of raising taxes. When the nobles were told the extent of the debt, they were shocked; however, the shock did not motivate them to rally behind the plan — but to reject it.
Food scarcity was common in the 18th century, but the grain police would forbid exportations from regions facing bad harvests and would import grain from regions enjoying overproduction. There were many factors that contributed to the spark of the revolution. The French believed in the ideas of these thinkers, as well as other popular Enlightenment ideas, so they tried to overthrow their government. This worsened during the eighteenth century. This negative turn of events signaled to Louis that he had lost the ability to rule as an absolute monarch, and he fell into depression. Since 1789 the French government has been either parliamentary and constitutional or based on the plebiscitary system that Napoleon inherited and developed.
He recalled the Paris parlement and made it clear he was just tiding the nation over until the Estates General met. He participated in many wars. The two years prior to the revolution 1788—89 saw meager harvests and harsh winters, possibly because of a strong cycle caused by the 1783 eruption in. But due to this policy, the national debt of France increased from 300,000,000 to 600,000,000 Franks only in three years. The king had borrowed heavily to maintain a lavish lifestyle.
They also did not pay any tax to the king. This, together with other factors, had led to an increase in the population of Europe unprecedented for several centuries: it doubled between 1715 and 1800. It had the French fighting the English for naval and commercial superiority. He legalized unions, created a new constitution, a new legislature, and became to many a leader with democratic intentions. This set up an arbitrary tax-barrier sometimes, as at every regional boundary, and these barriers prevented France from developing as a unified market.
The third estate were not enjoying any privileges, however, its success depended on the support given by the rest of the third estate. Poverty also played an important role in fueling the French Revolution. Numerous pamphlets, for example, were produced showing Marie Antoinette at court orgies and poking fun at her bouffant hairstyles and inability to produce a male heir. Document 2 illustrates the three estates in 1789 and the land each held during the Old Regime. They aroused the common people about their rights. They were also the only members in society who could hold positions of importance such as Officers in the army. Brienne then tried to pass his own version of Calonne's changes through the parlement of Paris, but they refused, again citing the Estates General as the only body which could accept new taxes.