In addition, there has been little development regarding a set of criteria and indicators on which to base a plan for sustainable development. Those involved in watershed management need to identify the various regions and functions of the watershed in order to develop the appropriate strategies for each region. Such ideologies and relationships can be extended to an examination of the links between natural resource management, rural and community development, and public and environmental health Parkes and Panelli. One does not, however, necessarily equate to the other. Developing site-specific management plans based on these generalized steps can lead to watershed management strategies that achieve the goals of sustainability in relation to land resource use, the ecosystem, the ecological economy, and human health and well-being. According to Anil et al.
The biggest requirement for use of infiltration is the ability of the soil and the shallow ground water system to accept the water. Water is an essential element in our lives, but population growth and climate change are forcing us to re-evaluate how we manage water resources to maintain sustainable access to clean water. Reduction of connected impervious area and retention of natural drainage patterns and surfaces are the heart of these methods. Modelling shows that controlling lake level at 11 m will actually uplift the average water level from December to April Lai et al. Pink salmon also declined by 75 % at this time due to fishing pressure Ferguson et al. For the purpose of this paper, we define integrated watershed management as an adaptive, integrated, and multidisciplinary systems approach to management that aims to preserve productivity and ecosystem integrity regarding the water, soil, plants, and animals within a watershed, thereby protecting and restoring ecosystem services for environmental, social, and economic benefit.
Rate and volume control In its early stages, stormwater management was primarily concerned only with quantity control. This technology can also assist policy makers to produce watershed management plans efficiently through the development of alternative management scenarios Pandey et al. It also examines three case studies from China, Europe, and Canada to evaluate their major management issues and the strategies and technologies used to overcome them. The Manual will note several instances when the interaction between groundwater and surface water could be problematic. The action plan was implemented in 1998 and established clear targets to integrate ecological improvements with greater protection of society and development against flood risk Frijters and Leentvaar.
It is organized in four levels: member engagement, relational networks, organizational development, and programmatic coordination. In 2009, the Canadian government established the Commission of Inquiry into the Decline of Sockeye Salmon in the Fraser River, or the Cohen Commission, to identify factors contributing to the recent declines in population and productivity of Fraser River sockeye salmon. Urban hydrology techniques focused mostly on peak flow rate control and addressed volume in terms of flood control. Although it is not legally binding, it has been highly successful in achieving its goals. Vegetated swales Provides water a chance to soak into the ground and be filtered as it flows. The report also provides guidance for establishing a regular international monitoring and reporting framework to promote sustainable development and management of water resources.
In parallel, the Bank strives to align its assistance with the country's priorities and harmonize its aid program with other agencies to boost aid effectiveness. Watershed planning is a locally-driven mechanism for voluntarily addressing complex water quality problems that cross multiple jurisdictions. This situation increased recognition of the significance of and need for a holistic, ecosystem-based, multiple-use approach to land stewardship. Evapotranspiration Bioretention rain gardens Exposes runoff water to plant roots for uptake;can be under-drained and still effective. Consideration is needed on how this may impact operation assumptions for installation. The situation of decreasing lake area and volume and worsening water quality has yet to be successfully managed.
We present three case studies in this paper as a valuable resource for scientists, resource managers, government agencies, and other stakeholders aiming to improve integrated watershed management strategies and more efficiently and successfully achieve ecological and socio-economic management objectives. Integrated up-to-date science and technologies Watershed managers need to utilize a multidisciplinary approach by bringing together the developments of computer science, geo-spatial technologies, the support of big data, simulation modelling techniques, as well as optimized decision making approaches to systematically integrate various dimensions of data to develop a comprehensive management tool. Although the populations of Fraser River salmon species have risen and fallen over time, the Fraser remains of the most productive fishery systems in the world Ferguson et al. For example, green stormwater infrastructure means rethinking how we design our cities and communities. Integrated Water Management presents opportunities for environmental benefits to be compared and achieved alongside social and economic benefits.
It is not only the damage to the waterways themselves that are of concern, but also the loss and degradation of riparian areas, as these provide food, shelter, and nesting sites for many terrestrial vertebrates, and are important stopovers for migratory birds. Some chemicals in pesticides are taken up by aquatic species and bioaccumulate through the food chain Environment Canada , which can then carry these damaging chemicals throughout the environment as individuals move or migrate. Additionally, sustainable watershed management must consider the implementation of zoning and projects for different goals and objectives. Management strategies have also focused on ecosystem restoration. Adjustments must be made along the way to continue progress toward attaining established water resource goals. Reflecting that variability, Integrated Water Management projects also vary greatly from the basin scale like the to the city scale like the work in Cincinnati.
The major environmental issues within the basin include ecosystem degradation and water pollution from agriculture, mining, forestry, and industrial and human development; water depletion; and biodiversity loss from habitat destruction and environmental degradation Gustavson et al. Dealing with climate change related issues is a high priority in the Fraser River Basin. The distinction between infiltration and recharge is a narrow one that can usually be ignored. A recent study by Zhou et al. The Institute of Water Research offers the watershed comprehensive assessment tool Institute of Water Research , making it easy and accessible to understand the current conditions of a watershed of interest, even for those with little experience in running models and analyzing data related to watersheds. The interaction between groundwater and surface water Integrated stormwater management often takes advantage of the interaction that takes place between groundwater and surface water. Several dams and dikes have been constructed and some channels have been completely cut off along the river to control flooding, reducing its length by about 100 km Frijters and Leentvaar ; Loucks et al.
Although these groups share a common space that could transcend state borders, their interests, knowledge and use of resources within the watershed are mostly disproportionate and divergent, resulting to the activities of a specific group adversely impacting on other groups. Lastly, throughout the life of the management plan, the implementing agency needs to assess and improve their management plan to account for changes in the environment and stakeholder needs and address management activities that are insufficiently meeting management objectives. Focusing exclusively on one or the other might meet a specific regulatory requirement, but will not result in effective overall stormwater management. This first publication serves as an introduction to the Guidelines and outlines the main points contained within them. In summary, integrated watershed management is the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that provide the goods, services, and values desired by the community affected by conditions within a watershed boundary. The use of tools and technology that can predict local future changes in climate is essential, as the impacts of climate change on the hydrologic system will vary across the globe and within a country Milly et al.
An integrated practice reduces the amount of paving, curbs, storm drain pipes and other infrastructure that would have otherwise been employed in a traditional stormwater practice design within the community. Evolution of watershed management The concept of watershed management has existed for millennia. Dams were also constructed throughout the basin for log storage in the early twentieth century, which blocked migratory routes and destroyed eggs when the log booms were floated downstream. Flexibility in management strategies is also crucial due to the uncertainty associated with climate predictions. In essence, it is resource management with the watershed as the basic organizing unit.